Imam Husain's Great Revolution
Part 1: The events before arrival of Imam Husain(A.S) in Karbala

Eventually Muslim was arrested, chained and brought to Ubaidullah. When Muslim was presented to Ubaidullah, he stood erect with dignity. He was asked for his last wish before he joined Hani, who had already been killed

According to rahyafte (the missionaries and convertswebsite):

Yazid’s Demand for Allegiance

In 50 A.H. when Imam Hasan (A) was poisoned, the duty of Imamat became the responsibility of his younger brother Imam Husain (A). At the time, Muawiya bin Abu Sufyan, the governor of Syria and arch-enemy of the family of the Holy Prophet (S), was virtually the ruler of the whole Muslim Empire. Muawiya, who had caused the poisoning of Imam Hasan (A), continued to disregard the human rights of the people and employed gangs of criminals to terrorise them. Imam Husain (A) was not frightened by the power of Muawiya, and openly condemned him and criticised his actions in his letters, warning him against the punishment of Allah.
Muawiya broke the conditions of the treaty he had signed with Imam Hasan (A) and declared his evil son Yazid as Caliph. In 60 A.H., news was conveyed to Walid, Yazid’s governor in Madina, about the death of Muawiya. At the same time, Yazid sent orders to Walid to demand the oath of allegiance (Bay’at) from Imam Husain (A). The orders stated that if Imam (A) refused, his head should be cut off and sent to Yazid in Damascus.
On receipt of the letter of Yazid, Walid sent his servant to Imam (A), requesting a meeting. So Imam Hussein (A) with some of the Hashimite youth, including his brother Abbas (A) and his son Ali Akbar who went to protect Imam, reached the Government House. Imam (A) asked the men to remain at the door, and only to come in if they heard his voice become unusually loud.

Walid read out the letter he had received from Yazid. Imam (A) flatly refused to pay allegiance to Yazid, well knowing that such an action would leave Islam and the Muslims in ruins. His famous answer to the governor of Yazid was, “A man like me can never give allegiance to a man like him.”
After this confrontation the life of Imam (A) was in danger, and with a heavy heart he began to plan to leave Madina, the city of his beloved grandfather.
Imam Husain’s (A) Departure from Madina
When Imam (A) announced that he was leaving Madina, the people of the city were struck with grief. They could not bear the loss of their dear Imam (A) who reminded them so much of the Holy Prophet (S) in his appearance, manner and speech. Groups of people approached him asking him why he was leaving, and begging him not to go.
Imam (A) explained that Yazid had demanded his allegiance and that because of his refusal, the tyrant would not hesitate to make Madina a battlefield. Imam (A) did not want bloodshed of innocent Muslims in the city of his grandfather. Therefore, he was going to Mecca for pilgrimage and then he would decide what to do. Imam (A) then visited the graves of his grandfather, his mother Bibi Fatimah (A) and his brother Imam Hasan (A). After this, he went home to make preparations for the journey. His sister Bibi Zainab (A) was married to Abdullah bin Ja’far, and she asked her husband for permission to accompany her brother, saying that she could not live without him in the city. Abdullah granted her his permission and she returned to Imam (A) and prepared to leave with him.
The caravan began moving and Imam Husain (A) bid farewell to the people of Madina. The people were weeping openly, wondering whether they would ever see him again.
Imam Husain (A) in Mecca
Imam (A) arrived in Mecca on 3rd Sha’baan 60 A.H. While he waited for the Haj season, he pondered about his future action. He could not have continued to live in Madina after refusing to pay Yazid the allegiance he demanded.
Had he stayed on in Madina, he would have undoubtedly been killed and his murder would cause the clash of the loyal people of Madina, especially the Hashimites, with the forces of Yazid.
This would result in the massacre of innocent people and destruction of the city of his beloved grandfather, the Holy Prophet (S). Besides if he had stayed in Madina, the world would always ask why he had not sought shelter elsewhere.
The whole empire was going through terrible times. Yazid’s grip on the people was absolute and anyone who dared to say anything against him was harshly dealt with. Yazid favoured those worthless people who flattered him, and he installed them as governors and leaders in the mosques.

The chastity of women was no longer safe, with their dignity at the mercy of Yazid’s brutal soldiers. Marriage lost its sanctity and protection to married women. If a woman was desired by men of the government, deceitful measures were adopted to force the husband to divorce his wife so that she could be made available to these shameless men.

Human rights were deliberately denied and the laws of religion were openly defied by Yazid, who remained in a constant state of intoxication. There was no protection for life or property and looting and persecution was freely practised in the political interests of the state.
At last, people could bear it no longer and messengers began to come to Imam (A), with written requests to come to the rescue of Islam and the Muslims. People wrote to Imam (A) saying that if he did not do something to defend the religion of Allah from getting lost and the people from going astray, they would complain about him to Allah and the Prophet (S) on the Day of Judgement.
Many of these desperate messages came from Kufa, begging Imam (A) to come to their urgent aid. When Imam (A) received these calls for help in Mecca, he had to respond. However, he could not blindly accept the call from Kufa, because the people of that city were well known for their fickle and unstable character and conduct.
Therefore, he decided to send a deputy to Kufa who would write to him after having studied the sincerity of the invitation.
Imam (A) sent his cousin Muslim bin Aqeel to Kufa and asked him to report from there. Muslim left for Kufa on the 14th of Mahe Ramadhan, along with his two sons and two guides.
Meanwhile, Yazid received news in Damascus that Imam (A) was in Mecca for Haj. He therefore hired 30 men to disguise themselves as pilgrims and murder Imam (A). These men entered Mecca with daggers under their Ehram with a view to kill Imam (A) even if he was within the boundaries of the Holy Ka’ba.
At the same time, Imam (A) received a letter from Muslim that it was safe for him to come to Kufa. He decided to leave for Kufa once the Haj was over. However, he was then made aware of the presence of Yazid’s assassins in Mecca.
On the eve of Haj, Imam (A) decided to change his intention to Umrah instead of Haj, and leave Mecca immediately. The reason for this was that he did not want bloodshed on the sacred ground of Mecca.
In response to the call of the people of Kufa, Imam (A) made his way towards that city. By that time however, Muslim was in dreadful trouble in Kufa, where after being welcomed, he was now having to fight for his very life. Although Muslim desperately tried to send a message to Imam Husain (A) to avoid Kufa at all costs, he was not successful.
Muslim bin Aqeel in Kufa
In Kufa, Muslim was given a very warm reception and thousands of people swore the oath of allegiance to Imam Husain (A) at Muslim’s hands. He was impressed, and, guided by the enthusiasm and assurances of the people, he immediately wrote a letter to Imam (A) advising him to come to Kufa.
When Yazid learnt of Muslim’s arrival in Kufa and the reaction of the people, he despatched Ubaidullah ibne Ziyad as his governor to Kufa with instructions to force the people to withdraw their support of Muslim. Soon after his arrival, the new governor had managed to bribe all the leading figures of Kufa to change their allegiance. To the rest of the population a strong threat was issued: “The Caliph Yazid will consider anyone who is found associating with Muslim bin Aqeel, the Deputy of Husain bin Ali, to be a rebel. By way of punishment, such people will be hanged, their families put to sword and their property confiscated. If anyone has extended any help to him upto now, no harm will come to him as long as the support is withdrawn immediately”.
The time for prayers came and Muslim rose to lead the congregation as he had done since his arrival. When he completed his prayers, he turned back to find the whole mosque deserted, except for Hani bin Urwah, at whose house Muslim was a guest. The people of Kufa had all succumbed to the warning of the governor, too cowardly to make a stand against this injustice and knowing that they had effectively passed the death sentence on Muslim. These were the same people who had deserted Imam Ali (A) and Imam Hasan (A) in their times of need.
Both men realised that their first priority was to get a message to Imam Husain (A) and warn him to turn away from Kufa. Hani knew the town better so they decided that he should get away with the message.
With a quick farewell, Hani ran out. As Hani prepared to leave, his house was surrounded by armed soldiers. Hani drew out his sword, determined not to give in easily. However, he was hopelessly outnumbered and was overpowered, chained and taken to the governor. Meanwhile, Muslim left the mosque not knowing where to go. At last he rested against a doorway, tired and thirsty. The door opened and an old lady stood there.

On learning his identity she quickly pushed him in, warning him that soldiers everywhere were hunting for him. This pious lady, who’s name was Tau’a, told Muslim to hide in her attic till it was safe to leave but his son, immediately thought of the reward being offered for Muslim’s capture. In the morning the evil man went and informed the governor of Muslim’s whereabouts. When Muslim heard the approach of soldiers, he knew that he had been betrayed and had to leave. He snatched a sword from the room and rushed out. The soldiers, who were expecting a meek surrender, were surprised to see Muslim emerge from the house like an enraged lion. He had extensive experience and skill in combat and the enemies began to fall back under his attack, dying and being trampled by the hooves of the horses of their own men. The leader of the soldiers sent word to the governor that they needed more men, a request that astounded Ubaidullah.

Eventually Muslim was arrested, chained and brought to Ubaidullah. When Muslim was presented to Ubaidullah, he stood erect with dignity. He was asked for his last wish before he joined Hani, who had already been killed. Muslim asked for a messenger to be sent to Imam Husain (A). This request surprised the governor, who expected a plea for mercy for Muslim’s sons, who had also been found and captured. In any case, he refused the request. Ubaidullah then ordered that Muslim be beheaded…

to be continued…


DUA: Allah please accept this from us. You are All-Hearing and All-Knowing. You are The Most Forgiving.You are The Most Relenting and repeatedly Merciful. Allah grant us The Taufiq to read all the 5 prayers with sincerity.
(Taken from: To Be Earnest In Prayers By Amina Elahi)
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